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ORF10 protein belongs to the herpesvirus UL49 gene family and is a homolog of the herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) protein VP16 (J Gen Virol 1986. 67 (Pt 9): 1759-1816).

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VZV ORF40, the major capsid protein, is a homomultimer that self-assembles to form an icosahedral capsid (UniProtKB – Q4JQT5). Its HSV-1 ortholog is UL19.

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VZV contains 5 unique genes (ORF1, ORF2, ORF13, ORF32, and ORF57) not present in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Cohen et al (Virology. 1995 Feb 1;206(2):835-42) analysed ORF1 by the antibody to the epitope inserted in the ORF1 of recombinant virus.

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During VZV infection, ORF9 is the most transcribed VZV gene (J Virol 2003. 77: 11718-11732., J Gen Virol 2005. 86: 2673-2684.). ORF9 protein is a 302 aa tegument protein expressed at late time post VZV infection and is a member of herpesvirus UL49 gene family (J Gen Virol 1986. 67 (Pt 9): 1759-1816).

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VZV ORF49 (UniProtKB – Q77NP3) is a virion tegument protein. Sadaoka et al found that complex formation between ORF44 and ORF49 is required for the efficient production of infectious progeny virus.

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VZV ORF7 (UniProtKB – Q6QCP9) is the ortholog of HSV-1 protein UL51. Zhang et al showed that ORF7 is required for viral replication in skin organ cultures (a skin tropism factor)

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VZV ORF54 assembles as a dodecamer and has a role in DNA packaging (UniProtKB – Q6QCK2). Its HSV-1 homolog is UL6. Visalli et al showed that the VZV ORF54 is essential for cleavage and packaging of viral DNA (J. Virol. July 2014 vol. 88 no. 14 7973-7986).

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The VZV DNA polymerase has two subunits, ORF16 and ORF28 (Nature Reviews Microbiology 12, 197–210 (2014)). The VZV ORF16 (UniProtKB – Q6QCN9) has a HSV-1 ortholog UL42.

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ORF63 protein is 278 aa tegument protein expressed as an immediate-early protein (J Gen Virol 1986. 67 (Pt 9): 1759-1816, J Virol 1995. 69: 4274-4282) and a homolog of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) ICP22.

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The envelope glycoprotein I of VZV, gI (UniProtKB – Q775H9) is an ortholog of HSV-1 protein US7. Mallory et al showed that the expression of ORF67 gene product is required for efficient VZV replication (J Infect Dis (1998) 178 (Supplement_1): S22-S26.).

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ORF47 protein is a tegument protein which possesses a kinase activity (J Gen Virol 1994. 75 (Pt 2): 317-326, Virology 1992. 191: 9-18) and is a homolog of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) UL13, human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) UL97 and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) BFLF4 protein kinases (J Virol 1989. 63: 450-455).

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The ORF32 encodes a protein of 16 kDa located in the cytosol of virus-infected cells and post – translationally modified by the ORF47 protein kinase.

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The ORF3 encodes a predicted 179 amino acid protein with a potential role in gene expression. Several studies showed ORF3 protein as dispensable for viral replication and establishment of latency.

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The ORF53, which is predicted to be a tegument protein, consists of 331 amino acids and plays a critical role in cytoplasmic virus egress. ORF53 participates in the final step of tegumentation and envelope acquisition within the host cytoplasm.

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Open reading frame 68 (ORF68) of Varicella zoster encodes for essential, most immunogenic and most abundant glycoprotein E (gE).

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The ORF22 encodes for the inner tegument protein UL36 that plays multiple roles in the viral cycle.

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The ORF50 gene of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes glycoprotein M which is conserved among all herpesviruses. VZV gM is predicted to be an eight-transmembrane envelope glycoprotein modified with a complex N-linked oligosaccharide.

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VZV ORF36 is present in the central region of the UL segment and consists of 1026 nucleotides.

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Immediate-early 62 protein (IE62) is a homolog of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) ICP4. These two proteins have conserved DNA bidnding domain,while not activation domain (J Virol 1993. 67: 4246-4251).

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Open reading frame 37 (ORF37) of Varicella zoster encodes for envelope glycoprotein H (gH). VZV gH is a 118kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein highly conserved among other alphaherpesviruses.